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Clank (real designation XJ0461, serial number B5429671[1]) is the titular deuteragonist and the secondary main playable character of the Ratchet & Clank series. He is a robot created by the Zoni, possessing a Zoni soul as a result, and is Ratchet's best friend.

Clank was created by Orvus, the leader of the Zoni, in the Great Clock. He was produced in a blarg robot factory on Quartu that created sentry-bots, but upon acquiring an infobot and learning about Chairman Drek's plans, he fled the planet in a stolen starship, crash-landing on Veldin. There, he met Ratchet, who became his lifelong best friend afterward, as they would partake on many adventures. When the two visited the Polaris Galaxy in their mission to defeat Emperor Percival Tachyon, Clank was met by a race invisible to the others known as the Zoni, who referred to him as the Chosen One. The Zoni helped Clank defeat Tachyon and afterwards, abducted him from Ratchet to take him back to the Great Clock, where he was supposed to take up his true destiny as Senior Caretaker of the Clock with Sigmund. However, after stopping Dr. Nefarious from trying to use the Clock to his advantage, Clank made Sigmund its caretaker and returned to his place at Ratchet's side.

Clank is highly knowledgeable in a variety of topics and able to communicate with many other machines. He often acts as a contrast to Ratchet's more brash personality, serving as his voice of reason. Clank also helps Ratchet in the form of attachments such as the Heli-Pack, allowing Ratchet to reach greater heights and storing all of Ratchet's weapons, as well as being able to access areas Ratchet cannot. Clank is also capable of commanding help in the form of gadgebots, microbots, and Zoni. Clank can sometimes transform into Giant Clank to become a more deadly robot with powerful weaponry. Clank has also wielded the Chronoscepter to manipulate time and access the Netherverse. Clank also at one point starred in a holovision show, Secret Agent Clank.

History

Ratchet & Clank

Clank being created and subsequently marked as a defect.

Clank had been created by his father, Orvus, at the Great Clock, with a Zoni soul.[2] However, he was born on a production line in a factory producing sentry-bots on planet Quartu. The sentry-bots were built for Chairman Drek, who Clank's mother, a computer on the production line Clank was created from, harbored ill will towards.[3] Shortly after his birth, Clank viewed an infobot that uncovered Drek's plan to extract a portion of planet Novalis and use it for his new planet, causing fled the factory immediately and steal an escape shuttle. In his attempt to escape, Clank was chased by two blargian robots who shot his ship down, causing him to crash-land on Veldin.

Ratchet discovering an unconscious Clank on Veldin.

On Veldin, Clank was initially immobilized and rescued by a lombax named Ratchet, who took Clank to his garage. Clank awoke to see Ratchet working on a new homemade ship, which impressed Clank. The two became acquainted, and Clank discovered Ratchet was unable to fly the ship, as he lacked a robotic ignition system. As Clank was equipped with the latest in robotic ignition systems, he was able to provide Ratchet a way to fly the ship.[4]

Ratchet and Clank arguing.

The two then resolved to search for galactic hero Captain Qwark to help them defeat Drek. Their quest led them to Al's RoboShack in Metropolis on planet Kerwan, where Al outfitted Clank with the Heli-Pack after recognizing Clank's compatible XP-18 sisterboards.[5] Eventually, the two caught up with Qwark on Umbris, who had sprung a trap for them, Clank fell for the trap and dragged Ratchet along with him.[6] This caused Ratchet to fall out with Clank and declare his own agenda, focused entirely on vengeance against Qwark. Clank was confused by Ratchet's behavior, believing it unlike Ratchet, and tried to appeal to him as to the innocent lives at stake from Drek. Though they were at an impasse, Clank provided Ratchet an ultimatum: if Ratchet agreed to help fight Drek, he would provide Ratchet the robotic ignition system needed to fly starships.[7]

Clank holding onto the Deplanetizer with a broken arm.

Following the exchange, Ratchet continued to argue bitterly with Clank at times, Clank became frustrated whenever Ratchet was distracted[8] and making a point to insist that Ratchet focus on Drek.[9] However, he continued to believe, and noticed signs to indicate, that Ratchet did care deep down.[10] Along the way, Clank received the Thruster-Pack upgrade from Bob, and the Hydro-Pack upgrade from Edwina, before the two caught up with Qwark in pursuit of Drek. After Qwark was defeated and after subsequently viewing an infobot showing the devastation Drek caused on Oltanis, Ratchet apologized to Clank for his selfish attitude and admitted Clank was right, to which Clank reminded him it was not too late to stop Drek,[11] and the two continued their adventure.

Upon returning to Quartu, Clank met the Ultra-Mech Scientist, who was attempting to destroy his Ultra-Mech Pad after learning Chairman Drek was responsible. Instead, Clank offered to use it himself and destroy the other Ultra-Mech Unlimited robots,[12] and after destroying them as Giant Clank, the scientist recalibrated it to only accept Clank's circuitry.[13] On Kalebo III, Clank also met and flirted with the HelpDesk Girl, who took a liking to him.[14] Clank then returned to Quartu once more and reunited with his mother at the factory where he was made. Sge released an infobot detailing that Drek next planned to attack Veldin, and expressed her pride in Clank.[3][15] Ratchet and Clank then defeated Drek and destroyed his new world, after which Clank assumed the friendship was over. To his surprise, Ratchet called out to him, and took him back to the garage to fix his arm, after which the two remained lifelong friends.[16]

Re-imagined

The 2016 re-imagined game and movie are in-universe fictional accounts of the original Ratchet & Clank.
The re-imagined game describes Captain Qwark's account of events, while the re-imagined film is an in-universe holofilm. As Qwark is an unreliable narrator, and the holofilm is fiction, any events that contradict the original are non-canon (though those which correspond still apply). Please see Project:Bulletin board/Canon for the wiki's coverage of canon.

Clank inside his escape shuttle.

In Qwark's retelling and the holofilm, Clank's story is very similar. He was born on Quartu's robot factory, as Warbot Defect B54296, a defect in a line of warbots created by Dr. Nefarious, which was created when a Zoni lightning bolt struck the factory.[17] After information about Drek's plan was uploaded to his databanks, Clank was horrified. The factory detected Clank as a defect, and Drek's lieutenant Victor Von Ion chased him as he fled the factory on a shuttle, en route to Kerwan to warn everyone. Victor Von Ion fired a missile that struck Clank's shuttle, causing him to crash-land on Veldin.

Ratchet showing Clank how to shake hands.

On Veldin, Clank was recovered by Ratchet, who gave him his nickname and returned him to his garage to be repaired. Clank then told Ratchet of Drek's plans to invade Aleero City, though he was reluctant for a civilian to help. Ratchet falsely claimed to be a friend of the Rangers, and the two then set off to the Kerwan. On Kerwan, Clank adjusted the Mag Booster on Ratchet's ship to specifically target his raritanium armor, which would also target Drek's warbots, allowing him to grab the warbots and propel them towards a Class G Dreadship and destroy it.

Clank with his newly-installed Heli-Pack.

After this accomplishment, Qwark made Ratchet and Clank members of the Rangers. Clank was introduced to Al, who provided him with a free Heli-Pack upgrade.[18] Clank befriended Elaris, the technical support of the Rangers who was given little respect or appreciation.[19] He then joined Ratchet on many missions with the Rangers. The first was the Blarg Tactical Research Station, where he explored outside the station's airlock and found the Magneboots. Next, was Gaspar where he made use of the XK-81 Jetpack upgrade to help Ratchet fly around and access other areas. On Pokitaru, Clank met Al again, who installed the Thruster-Pack upgrade (in Qwark's retelling, Clank began with the Hydro-Pack from the start).[18]

Clank afraid and holding a wrench.

Before a Ranger mission that took him back to the factory on planet Quartu where he was created, Clank and Elaris had devised a plan of attack, which Qwark and the other Rangers ignored out of arrogance. Later, during the Rangers' mission to reach the Deplanetizer and defend planet Novalis, after Ratchet attacked the Deplanetizer alone, Clank remained on the Starship Phoenix with Elaris, where Victor Von Ion attacked. After fleeing Victor Von Ion through the ship, he eventually caused the robot lieutenant to slip into water, which resulted in his defeat. However, Ratchet's infiltration of the Deplanetizer was not successful, as he was captured by Drek, Qwark betrayed the Rangers, and Novalis was blown apart.

Clank trying to convince Ratchet to not give up.

Later, Clank returned to Veldin, where he found a solemn and defeated Ratchet. After convincing Ratchet to rejoin the Rangers, the team then devised another plan, this time listening to what Elaris and Clank had learned. The Rangers deduced that Dr. Nefarious had been using Drek and would be planning to destroy Umbris next to take nearby planets with it. Following Clank and Elaris' plan, the Galactic Rangers successfully disrupted the Deplanetizer, causing it to destroy Drek's New Quartu instead (with Drek still on it), while Ratchet and Clank destroyed it from the inside. Ratchet and Clank confronted Qwark, eventually making him come to his senses, and then they defeated Nefarious, causing him to crash on Umbris. As the three fled the Deplanetizer before it exploded, Qwark appeared unable to reach the teleporter. With help from Ratchet, Clank pulled the teleporter from the floor it was attached to, allowing the three of them to teleport back to the Starship Phoenix in one piece.

Clank later returned to Ratchet, who had returned to his life as a mechanic, and the two became lifelong friends.[19]

Going Commando

Clank and Ratchet on Behind the Hero.

Clank appeared with Ratchet in an interview for Behind the Hero, discussing their activities since Drek's defeat. During the interview, Clank's admirer, a female infobot, was hiding behind his chair. Midway through this interview, both Ratchet and Clank were teleported away by Captain Qwark disguised as Abercrombie Fizzwidget,[20] who offered Ratchet a job as a commando for Megacorp in the Bogon Galaxy to hunt down the Unknown Thief. Clank was ambivalent about this at first, but Fizzwidget offered him an apartment in Megapolis on planet Endako, with a job as Megacorp's head accountant.[21] His admirer followed him there to deliver him flowers, shortly before being scared off by the Thief, who came to kidnap Clank.

Clank being electrocuted by the Unknown Thief.

With Clank captured, the Thief had him strapped to a metal board and electrocuted him while repeatedly managing to avoid Ratchet. Ratchet then arrived in Endako and to rescue Clank, who in turn freed Ratchet since the Thief had trapped them both. Clank then joined Ratchet on his quest to find Megacorp's "Experiment". Later on, the two discovered that the Unknown Thief was a lombax named Angela Cross, and the Megacorp Experiment was to be mass-marketed as a pet named the Protopet, despite being a killer threat that had not passed safety checks.[22] This prompted them to instead work with Angela against Megacorp. When imprisoned by the Thugs-4-Less mercenaries in their prison on Aranos, while they were under Megacorp's employment, Clank's admirer assisted them by breaking through an air duct, providing their only means of escape.[23]

Clank with Ratchet, Angela, and his admirer in his apartment on Endako.

Towards the end of the adventure, in the Protopet Factory on Yeedil, Clank's admirer arrived to show them a video revealing that Qwark planned to use the Bogon Galaxy to stage a comeback by manufacturing the Protopet menace so that he could save the galaxy from it and restore his tarnished reputation. At that point, Qwark appeared, revealing that he had been disguised as Fizzwidget the entire time, and filmed a broadcast to depict him saving the galaxy from the Protopet while framing Clank, Ratchet, and Angela as the "masterminds" behind the Protopet.[20] He tried to use Angela's Helix-o-morph to cure the Protopet, but his plan backfired as he morphed it into a Mutant Protopet. Ratchet and Clank defeated it, and Clank diagnosed that the Helix-o-morph was not working due to the battery being inserted backwards.[24] Ratchet, Clank, Angela, and Clank's admirer were later seen enjoying time together in Clank's apartment.

Up Your Arsenal

Clank and Ratchet as Agent Clank and Jeeves.

Sometime prior to the events of Up Your Arsenal, Clank became a star in his own holovision show, Secret Agent Clank. The show had many fans, including President Phyronix[25] and Dr. Nefarious.[26]

Ratchet and Clank on Endako.

The two sprung into action when learning from a Channel 64 News report that Veldin was under attack by an alien race known as the tyhrranoids, masterminded by Dr. Nefarious. Clank objected to using Ratchet's gravimetric warp drive, as the device was untested and built from blargian scrap metal, but was proven wrong when they arrived safely and on-time to stop the invasion.[27] President Phyronix recognized Clank from Secret Agent Clank, and recurited him to the war effort against Nefarious.[28] Clank joined the Q-Force, a team formed by Captain Qwark, located on the Starship Phoenix, and was introduced to Skrunch, Qwark's monkey, who he directed on the field using the Banana-Guided Autonomous Monkey Device to fire bananas.[29] Clank made use of this during "Find Nefarious' Office", directing Skrunch and several gadgebots to infiltrate Nefarious' office on Aquatos. Al also entered Clank in the Robowars cage match toasterweight division, for which Clank would be required to swap out his arms for a blowtorch.[30]

Clank talking Courtney and Nefarious.

When Ratchet and Clank learned that the pop star Courtney Gears was producing propaganda for Nefarious, Clank met with her in Annihilation Nation. Gears flirted with Clank, and offered to share more information about Nefarious if he gave her a role in Secret Agent Clank.[31] Clank agreed and returned to Holostar Studios, where he filmed an episode known as "Maxmillian Strikes Back". The episode featured Skrunch, after Ratchet was fired from the cast, and involved a chase scene against Maxmillian, before Clank transformed into Giant Clank to defeat the Terror of Talos and rescue the baroness, played by Courtney Gears. After the episode, rather than give Clank information, Gears incapacitated and took him to Nefarious, who encouraged him to join his cause.[26] Clank refused and was thus replaced with Klunk, a replica that would spy on Ratchet.

Clank operating the cannon.

Nefarious took Clank with him to Metropolis to witness the Biobliterator transforming the city into robots. Ratchet defeated Klunk and found Clank, following which Clank blamed himself, though Ratchet responded that Nefarious was to blame.[32] Later, Ratchet and Clank found Qwark in hiding in the Thran Asteroid Belt, having resigned from the war; Ratchet berated Qwark, though Clank motivated Qwark to return.[33] On Koros, Ratchet helped Clank reach the control panel for a cannon, allowing him to destroy the Biobliterator, only for the two to learn Nefarious had constructed a second Biobliterator in secret on Mylon. Ratchet and Clank defeated Nefarious and, with the help of Qwark, destroyed the second Biobliterator. Clank celebrated alongside Ratchet and many of their allies from previous adventures by watching the premiere of the Secret Agent Clank movie.

Deadlocked

Clank was appointed first officer of the Starship Phoenix after Sasha Phyronix was appointed mayor of Metropolis, with Ratchet as captain and Al as chief engineer.[34] Shortly after being warned by Sasha about an at-large criminal known as Gleeman Vox who had been abducting heroes and forcing them to participate in DreadZone, the three were then kidnapped and taken to DreadZone Station.[35] Though it was assumed Clank and Al would be terminated as only Ratchet was to participate, Vox opted instead to give them deadlock collars, assigning Clank as Ratchet's mission engineer to save bolts.[36][37] Vox Industries also built a robot known as Alpha Clank, combining Clank's functionality with a combat-ready chasis to fight alongside Ratchet in place of his combat bots.[38]

Clank provided logistical support during Ratchet's missions, while secretly working with Al to try to break the deadlock collars so that they could leave. To do so, he communicated with Venus, a DreadZone tech droid, to acquire the blueprints for them,[39] and also flirted with her, bragging about his core CPU's sixteen terabits of tri-directional asynchronous bandwidth.[40] Though successful in removing the collars, Ace Hardlight caught them and foiled their plan. Instead, Clank and Al obtained schematics to the DreadZone Station and found a way to free the heroes held at the station by destroying the central computer on the control level.[41] Ratchet followed the plan and was successful in freeing the heroes, but Gleeman Vox rigged the station to explode, setting up the event as a final episode of DreadZone. After freeing the heroes, Ratchet urged Clank to use a shuttle to escape in time, though Clank refused to leave him,[42] and when Vox was defeated, Clank returned with a final shuttle to pick Ratchet up.[43]

Size Matters

Clank in the technomite map room on Ryllus.

While vacationing with Ratchet on Pokitaru, the duo was interrupted by Luna, a technomite robot posing as a schoolgirl, that asked help for a school project. After, Clank noticed Captain Qwark, and a question by him reminded Qwark he had never known his real parents. Shortly after, Luna was abducted in a staged kidnapping by robots who left behind an object which Clank identified correctly as a technomite artifact, believing it to be proof the technomites actually exist.[44]

Clank as he wakes up on Metalis.

Clank followed its coordinates to Ryllus, unlocked the stone temple, and used it to activate a map room, proving to Ratchet that they existed. They then found coordinates to Kalidon. Clank was suspicious that it was a trap,[45] though Ratchet paid little attention. Shortly after finding Luna, he was electrocuted and dumped on Metalis, while Ratchet was taken to Medical Outpost Omega.

Clank knocked out while being invaded by the technomites.

Clank awoke on Metalis and competed in Clank Challenges, before Skrunch arrived with footage of Ratchet's surgery on the space station. Clank left, as Giant Clank, and awoke Ratchet, first blaming himself, before Ratchet apologized to him.[46] Ratchet and Clank then caught up with Luna, learned she was a technomite robot. Clank attempted to hack into her to find coordinates for the Clone Factory, but was disabled by Luna's level nine access protocol,[47] causing Ratchet to use the Shrink Ray to jump inside Clank and repair him. After doing so, Ratchet and Clank headed to Challax and defeated the technomite emperor, Otto Destruct, saving the galaxy again.

Secret Agent Clank

Secret Agent Clank is in-universe fiction.
Secret Agent Clank is an in-universe holofilm in the Secret Agent Clank fictional series. Its events are a fictional movie within the Ratchet & Clank universe. Please see Project:Bulletin board/Canon for the wiki's coverage of canon.

Donning his Secret Agent Clank persona, Clank now worked for the Agency in the Solana Galaxy, though one mission saw him investigate a case in which Ratchet was framed for stealing the Eye of Infinity from Boltaire Museum. Clank chased down the Eye while working to prove Ratchet's innocence. At first, Clank tracked the Eye to Number Woo on Asyanica, who revealed he had given it to countess Ivana Lottabolts on Glaciara. Clank danced with her and then found out from her that the Eye was now in the possession of the Kingpin on planet Rionosis. Clank followed the Kingpin but the Jack of all Trades intervened allowing the Kingpin to escape.

Clank soon learned that the Kingpin was, in fact, Klunk, who had framed Ratchet by implanting a mind control device that would cause Ratchet to commit the robbery and be imprisoned. Klunk stole Clank's ship and fled to his base on Hydrano, but Clank followed him as Giant Clank. Klunk revealed there that he planned to use the Eye of Infinity as a laser to destroy every planet in the galaxy and frame Ratchet. Clank defeated his doppelganger, and with the help of Qwark and Cute Anastasia Bot, was able to stop the laser. Ratchet was then released with a full pardon.

Tools of Destruction

When Kerwan was under attack from cragmite Emperor Percival Tachyon, who was only looking to kill Ratchet for being a lombax, Ratchet and Clank hijacked one of Tachyon's ships and traveled to the Polaris Galaxy. While there, Clank helped Ratchet learn more about his race and defeat Tachyon, though he was visited by an invisible race known as the Zoni. The Zoni referred to Clank as the "Chosen One", and Clank was able to command them to overcome obstacles. As the Zoni were only visible to Clank, Ratchet believed them to be Clank's "imaginary friends".

When Ratchet learned about the Dimensionator, a lombax device that had imprisoned the cragmites ending the Great War, Clank suggested that Ratchet destroy it as it was too dangerous. Ratchet refused, causing tension between the two. While they were able to retrieve the Dimensionator on planet Jasindu, it changed hands many times before Tachyon himself took it and returned the cragmites to this dimension. Ratchet now realized that Clank had been right and the Dimensionator was too dangerous. When they caught up with Tachyon and defeated him, they both disabled the Dimensionator. Ratchet and Clank then returned to the Apogee Space Station with Talwyn Apogee and warbots Cronk and Zephyr, where the Zoni, now visible to everyone, arrived and abducted Clank, taking him away.

Quest for Booty

Ratchet and Talwyn traveled to Merdegraw in search of Clank, and eventually found the Obsidian Eye, a device allowing them to find Clank. There, they found that Clank was not only still held by the Zoni, but by Dr. Nefarious, whom the Zoni had called in to "repair" Clank.

A Crack in Time

Clank remained suspended inside an unknown location, with Nefarious trying to hack into his mind to access a room known as the Orvus Chamber. When it became clear that the Zoni would not grant Nefarious access, Nefarious instead turned on them by using the Hypersonic Brainwave Scrambler, which delivered heavy damage to the Clock and its power generator. The damage freed Clank, who awoke and tried to flee from Nefarious, though he eventually hit a dead end. While cornered, Nefarious explained to Clank he was inside the Great Clock, a building created to contain time itself. He soon after immobilized Clank, with Lawrence suggesting they prepare the mnemonic station again to keep Clank suspended. However, Nefarious disagreed, claiming he had a better idea for Clank. Later, Clank awoke again and met Sigmund, the Junior Caretaker of the Clock. Sigmund introduced Clank to the functions of the Clock, and took him to learn of his true origin and work to repair the Great Clock from the damage done by Nefarious. while they were focusing on the repairs and destroying the Hypersonic Brainwave Scrambler for good, Nefarious' butler Lawrence spied on Clank's progress, hoping his current route would eventually lead him to the Orvus Chamber.

Clank later entered a mnemonic chamber which allowed him to enter his own subconscious. Here, he learned about his father, Orvus, and his role as the Senior Caretaker of the Great Clock. He was then granted a device called the Chronoscepter, which would allow him to repair time anomalies from on board the Great Clock. The device itself would reverse time to before the damage had been done and keep it in that moment, and it was also a handy tool for deflecting projectiles aimed at him. He also learned to create temporal recordings of himself using time pads to traverse specific areas by using multiple past selves. Clank had also learned more about his creator/father known as Orvus, a highly intelligent Zoni who also created the Great Clock itself. However, every time Clank asked Sigmund about Orvus' current whereabouts, he simply stated it was a secret. But soon enough, Clank eavesdropped on Sigmund as he was playing the last recording Orvus had sent him, with Orvus stating that he was taking a trip to planet Zanifar, as a fellow scientist had requested him as an audience on a project. This was the event which Clank realized even Sigmund was unsure of his whereabouts, as well as whether or not he is still alive. Ratchet, during Clank's journey, contacted Clank using another Obsidian Eye in Krell Canyon. Clank pleaded to Ratchet for his help in saving his father, and had Sigmund synthesize a Time Portal for Ratchet, in order to save Orvus from when Nefarious had ambushed him. Even with the worry of his father's current status, Clank continued on with his journey. He also encountered the Plumber along the way in his own subconscious while in the mnemonic chamber, and ambiguously warned Clank not to "risk any more than six minutes". When Sigmund eventually took Clank to the Orvus Chamber, he showed him an orientation message recorded by Orvus before he went missing. However, in the middle of the message, Lawrence unplugged the video system, disabled Clank and Sigmund with the Orb of Gratuitous Immobilization, and sent Clank to Vapedia to set up as bait for Ratchet.

Ratchet, while working with Alister Azimuth, freed Clank on Vapedia while battling a clan known as the Valkyries, an army Nefarious had hired, and the two caught up with one another. When Azimuth brought up their intentions for using the clock, Clank advised Ratchet and Azimuth that the Great Clock could not be used to bring back the lombaxes, claiming that it could rip the very fabric of existence if attempted to, with Azimuth in disagreement. Though once Ratchet decided to side with Clank on this matter, the disagreement caused Azimuth to leave. Ratchet and Clank then agreed to stop Nefarious from using the Clock and worked with Qwark to infiltrate the Nefarious Space Station, learning that he planned to use the Clock to alter time to ensure that the heroes always lose. Unfortunately, they were caught in the process of destroying invasion ships, and Nefarious casted them away from the station by trapping them on a meteorite and using a slingshot to send them into space. But luckily they were saved by the Zoni during the crash on planet Morklon, who had been contained by Ratchet using a Zoni Vessel. They were then approached by a lone Fongoid, and heard a story about how his entire village was wiped out many years ago after an Agorian ambush flooded their entire village. Clank realized there was an opportunity to help both the Fongoids, as well finding another ship if they were to go back in time and stop the ambush from happening.

After going back in time to help chief Zahn Gribnak from stopping the Agorians from destroying their village and the remaining Fongoids, they were able to acquire a ship after going back into the present, and soon after made their way back to the Nefarious space station. Prior to taking on Nefarious himself, however, Ratchet received a message from Flint Vorselon, an enemy Ratchet had had a couple run-ins with during his side of the journey. He challenged Ratchet for a final confrontation, as Ratchet and Clank made their way to his ship. Although having upgraded his suit in preparation for the fight, Vorselon was finally vanquished once and for all by Ratchet and Clank, as the two then escaped his ship just before it was destroyed. They then return to the Nefarious stations and had one last confrontation with Dr. Nefarious on one of his invasion ships, where they finally defeated him while witnessing him malfunction and seemingly shut down for good. As the ship was about to crash into the space station, they tried to make it to the escape pod but Lawrence had already taken it. Luckily, Azimuth arrived to save them just before it was destroyed.

Ratchet and Azimuth then traveled to the Great Clock to drop Clank off, but Azimuth became enraged when Ratchet and Clank yet again refused to use the Great Clock to save the lombaxes, and fired an energy blast from his wrench in retaliation that killed Ratchet. Shocked at what he just witnessed, Clank quickly beat Azimuth to the Orvus Chamber with the help of Sigmund, and locked the entrance to make sure he couldn't use it. Remembering the Plumber's "six minutes" advice, Clank used the clock to reverse time back six minutes, giving Clank just enough time to save Ratchet from Azimuth. This, however, allowed Azimuth to get to the Orvus Chamber sooner than them, leading him to tamper with the switch balancing out the past and the future. Ratchet and Clank defeated Azimuth during their battle within the Orvus Chamber and tried to fix the switch, but to no avail. Azimuth, who realized the error of his ways with how the clock was never meant to be used as a time machine, gave his life to fix the Great Clock which he had damaged. Ratchet was saddened to realize Azimuth sacrificed himself, but Clank assured him that he should be proud of Azimuth for fixing his fatal mistake. After having the Zoni repair the clock from rest of the damages caused by Azimuth, Ratchet said his final farewell to Clank before leaving the Orvus Chamber back to his ship. Clank, however, had conflicted feelings about leaving Ratchet on his own after Azimuth's death, and along the way realized that discovering his own family meant that he shouldn't leave Ratchet. He instead decided to remain by Ratchet's side until he found a family of his own. Before running back over just in time to catch Ratchet's ship from leaving, Clank appoints Sigmund as senior caretaker of the great clock by handing over his Chronoscepter to him, ensuring that the clock would be in good hands.

Comic series

Clank rejoined Ratchet on planet Veldin, where they both retired. However, Qwark, now elected President of the Polaris Galaxy, caught up with them and requested that they investigate a problem he had in which planets from across the universe were vanishing. Ratchet initially refused, though both Ratchet and Clank were kidnapped by Artemis Zogg and sent to his Vartax Detention Facility. After being freed and reuniting with Cronk and Zephyr, Ratchet and Clank returned to the Apogee Space Station, meeting Talwyn and Qwark, but also Sasha Phyronix and the Galactic Rangers from Solana. They then agreed to defeat Zogg.

After failing to stop Zogg's ship, Zogg issued the two with an ultimatum: either Clank and Ratchet turn themselves into Zogg, or Zogg would relocate Veldin and freeze it and its people to death. The two pretended to turn themselves in, before Clank gave Ratchet a hidden grenade that disrupted the ship, and allowed them to grab the Surinox Shard and flee to the frozen Veldin. There, the two were overwhelmed by Zogg's robots, to which Clank fired an EMP blast, disabling other robots, but also himself, for an hour. When he awoke, he found Ratchet silent, as he had destroyed Artemis Zogg's warship, but believed that Talwyn was still on board.

Ratchet and Clank returned to the Apogee Space Station, where Zogg arrived with Talwyn held at gunpoint. After a fight ensued, Zogg was eventually defeated, and using the Shard, cast off to the same dimension that Ratchet and Clank had previously banished Tachyon to. Ratchet and Clank then decided to return to the Polaris Galaxy.

All 4 One

With Dr. Nefarious still on the loose, Ratchet and Clank claimed in an interview with Kip Darling and Pepper Fairbanks that they would not join the search. Later, Clank followed Qwark with Ratchet to Luminopolis on Igliak, where Qwark was supposed to receive an "Intergalactic Tool of Justice" award for defeating a Light-Eating Z'Grute, which Qwark had never done. Dr. Nefarious and his butler Lawrence appeared on the scene, and Nefarious resurrected a Light-Eating Z'Grute to kill them all, though he had no control over it and it instead ravaged the city. When Lawrence fled the scene and resigned as Nefarious' butler, Nefarious was forced to team up with Ratchet, Clank and Qwark to defeat it, though they were afterward teleported away by a machine known as the Ephemeris to a testing laboratory on planet Magnus.

Cronk and Zephyr attempted to retrieve the four, but were stuck in an asteroid field and could not reach them. Therefore, the four would have to escape the world themselves and stop the Ephemeris. A small girl named Susie took the four to the tharpods, a race native to the planet, who explained the Ephemeris in detail to them. Eventually, the four worked to destroy the machine and defeat the Loki Master, who had planned to use it to destroy the universe.

The four defeated the Loki Master, and Cronk and Zephyr were finally able to arrive with the help of Lawrence. Ratchet, Clank and Qwark believed that Nefarious had changed his ways, though Nefarious instead fled the world with Lawrence and was then still at large as a supervillain.

Full Frontal Assault

Qwark, having lost the next presidential election, founded the Q-Force with Ratchet and Clank, and they worked on board the Starship Phoenix II. An unknown villain contacted them on board the ship, and Ratchet and Clank had to fight a grungarian army. Clank joined the fight, receiving many armor upgrades and fighting in battle as "Alpha Clank". The Q-Force later learned that the unknown villain was Qwark superfan Stuart Zurgo, who was attacking the galaxy out of vengeance. They eventually tracked down Zurgo's Lair of Doom and defeated him, bringing him to Polaris' authorities.

Into the Nexus

As a member of the Polaris Defense Force along with Ratchet, Cronk, and Zephyr, Clank helped bring in criminal Vendra Prog, and worked to escort her to prison before her brother, Neftin Prog, working with Thugs 4 Less mercenaries, destroyed the ship. While Ratchet and Clank were able to escape, Cronk and Zephyr were killed, leading them to chase after Vendra and Neftin to defeat them by stowing aboard the Thugs 4 Less' ship to planet Yerek.

Ratchet and Clank then tracked down the terachnoid, Pollyx, who gave Clank an upgrade allowing him to access the Netherverse, with Clank's Spotlight upgrade installed by Al prior to the game's events being able to use to find rifts through which to enter Netherverse. They realized that the "ghosts" on Yerek were actually a race known as the nethers, which Vendra and Neftin Prog wanted to be reunited with. Later, when Vendra found a low-rent Dimensionator and used it to bring Mr. Eye, leader of the nethers, to their dimension, Mr. Eye turned on Vendra and sealed her in the Netherverse. After agreeing with Neftin Prog that him and Vendra would turn themselves in if Ratchet and Clank rescued her, Clank rescued Prog from the Netherverse and defeated Mr. Eye, and the twins kept their word. Ratchet then abandoned the Dimensionator in Igliak's Intergalactic Museum of History, claiming he had enough in this dimension to not want to rejoin his race, though Clank unknowingly swiped it later.

Rift Apart

In the upcoming Rift Apart, Clank appears capable of using of dimension-hopping technology with Ratchet, revisiting several planets the pair had been to in a battle against Dr. Nefarious. Eventually, Clank lands on a planet controlled by Nefarious, and meets Rivet, a female lombax.

Characteristics

Appearance

Clank is a diminutive robot made of a grey metallic titanium alloy,[26] with large green circular eyes, a red antenna, and small articulated arms and legs with large three-fingered hands and feet. Clank contains what appears to be an air vent on his chest, which is actually used to store items.

During the events of Rift Apart, Clank loses his right arm. At the end of the game, Rivet makes him a yellow replacement arm.

Personality

Clank is a very intelligent, with a curious mind and an optimistic view of people. Clank possesses a vast array of knowledge on a wide variety of topics, offering insight when the opportunity arises.[a] He also has great wisdom, and is able to offer advice in the heat of the moment. He often sees the good in people, which works to his benefit when encouraging others to do the right thing, but to his detriment when it presents itself as naiveté.[b] Clank prefers to focus on the task at hand, wishing to avoid any distractions when on a mission of importance.[52][53] However, he has moments where he can enjoy himself, such as basking in the fame from Secret Agent Clank,[27] and having success with women.[c] Clank also has a sense of humor, often cracking jokes and chuckle at them,[54] a trait he adopted from his father, Orvus.

Clank has a strong and unwavering moral compass, and is committed to keeping the universe and its inhabitants safe. His creation in a factory that built killing machines has shaped this moral compass, giving him a sense of guilt, but also motivating him to be better in defiance.[55] When offered to join Dr. Nefarious, at the time winning the war, Clank stayed firm in his objection to any notion of robot supremacy.[26] As Ratchet was allured by the prospect of fame and fortune as a DreadZone gladiator, Clank was quick to remind him that stopping DreadZone was imperative.[37][56] Later, Clank also advised against the use of the Dimensionator, and the Great Clock, out of a principled belief that they would endanger the universe and such power should not be taken lightly.

Clank serves as a foil to Ratchet, his most important friendship. Clank's measured, more cautious approach serves as a necessary contrast to Ratchet's more brash personality. Ratchet's more playful attitude bounces well off Clank's more grounded and focused approach. Though the two have been in conflict at times, Ratchet most often come around to Clank's position, seeing Clank's wisdom.[11][57] Clank ultimately came to value his friendship with Ratchet to the point that he abandoned his important responsibility at the Great Clock before hearing Orvus' full message that gave Clank permission to do so.

Abilities

Giant Clank.

Clank is a very technologically advanced robot, with a CPU core that has sixteen terabits of tri-directional asynchronous bandwidth.[40] Coupled with his intelligence, Clank is able to scan technology and detect problems instantly, knowing how to fix them.[a] He came equipped with the latest in robotic ignition systems technology when created, allowing him to start any ship he chose.[4][d] Through his antenna, Clank can command small robots—gadgebots and microbots—which can perform tasks for him and attack enemies, allowing him to navigate otherwise difficult areas. Though his size means he is less of a capable fighter than Ratchet, he has shown proficiency in hand-to-hand combat and made use of martial arts. Where this fails him, using an Ultra-Mech Pad, Clank is able to transform into Giant Clank, a colossal form which can fight much larger threats, fire missiles and bombs, and fly to other planets.

As Ratchet's backpack, Clank is able to store a huge amount of weapons and gadgets for Ratchet. In addition, he runs on version 7.66 XP-18 sisterboards, making him compatible with a wide variety of upgrades.[5] The Heli-Pack and Thruster-Pack allow Ratchet to glide in the air and jump higher and further, while the Hydro-Pack allows Ratchet to swim faster. Other upgrades, such as the Levitator in Going Commando, the Zoni Robo-Wings in Tools of Destruction, and the GrummelNet Jetpack in Into the Nexus, allow Clank to grant Ratchet the limited ability to fly or hover in the air. Beyond this, Clank has had access to other upgrades that aid Ratchet: the Clank Zapper in Going Commando (which damages enemies with his antenna), a software module to swing across the environment in Going Mobile, the the Zoni-provided Geo-Laser allowing Clank to cut through thick walls in Tools of Destruction, and the Spotlight in Into the Nexus allowing Clanks to find rifts to the Netherverse.

Clank with the Chronoscepter in A Crack in Time.

Clank also has a Zoni soul, and in A Crack in Time, Sigmund installed a quantum actuator. This gives him temporal immunity (making him unaffected by altered time) and the ability to create temporal recordings of himself using time pads to create multiple selves. When having access to the Chronoscepter, Clank was able to use it to throw Time Bombs that slowed time drastically, and due to his temporal immunity, these only slowed his foes, not him or his allies. Clank could also wield the weapon to reverse projectiles, to repair broken objects by reversing time, and repair time anomalies on planets from within the Great Clock. Clank left the Chronoscepter to Sigmund, but retained his Time Bombs and the quantum actuator.

Behind the scenes

Development

Clank's mechanical lizard sketch

An early idea for Clank was for Ratchet to have three small robots attached to him, which would perform various functions, though Insomniac realized that this would be confusing, and streamlined these into a single robot.[58][59] Concept art shows these robots performing many functions that did not appear in the final game, as well as some that did in another form, such as using what appeared to be the Walloper and equipped with the Thruster-Pack in the final Ratchet & Clank, or performing functions later given to Microbots in Going Commando.[58][60] At some point, the concept for Ratchet had been as a fuzzy caveman led by a robot on a mission to save the galaxy, which would evolve into the final idea of the first game.[61] Clank was also later given a focus of providing just traversal gadgets for clarity.[62] He was developed similarly to a childlike C-3PO.[63]

Design sketches for Clank

Initial concept art for Clank was much more reptilian, to accompany Ratchet's original reptilian alien design.[58] Of the original design, only the large green eyes and articulated legs would carry over into the original design, which was more humanoid.[60] Clank was also designed to have a more youthful charm and innocence in his appearance, and in early concepts for him, he was going to have a young playmate and wear clothes.[64] Clank was thought of to be a younger version of C-3PO from Star Wars, given a childlike voice with a British accent, but Insomniac developer Brian Allgeier wanted Clank to be on "equal footing" with Ratchet, to give them a buddy dynamic.[63]

Clank was voiced by David Kaye, and Insomniac were extremely impressed with his audition for the first Ratchet & Clank, as his voice was immediately right for the character without any processing required to make it sound more robotic.[65] Kaye has since voiced Clank in every appearance.

Unlike Ratchet, Clank's design has remained largely consistent throughout the series. The only exception was All 4 One, in which Clank's proportions were altered slightly to give Clank a larger head.

Non-Ratchet & Clank appearances

Going Mobile is non-canon.
As Going Mobile was never installed as part of the main series, its events are considered non-canon. Please see Project:Bulletin board/Canon for the wiki's coverage of canon.

Clank also appears in non-canonical entries to the series. In the manga, Ratchet & Clank: Bang Bang Bang! Critical Danger of the Galaxy Legend, Clank appears as a major character and is saved by Ratchet.

Ratchet and Clank upon entering the vid-comic.

In a mobile phone game, Going Mobile, Ratchet and Clank were invited to look at new biomatter converter technology[66], though the device accidentally transported them to a Secret Agent Clank vid-comic.[67] They eventually contacted Al, who informed them only the MCGuFIN could help them escape, which they had to find[68], although it had split into pieces on transport.[69] They obtained all pieces, but discovered Maximillian was also planning to use it and escape the vid-comic, and was waiting for them at the final exit.[70] They managed to defeat Maximillian, and then used the device on themselves, traveling either home or to an unknown location.[71]

Non-canonical appearances

Ratchet has several major appearances in non-Ratchet & Clank titles.

In PlayStation Move Heroes, Clank appeared with Ratchet. Ratchet and Clank were captured, alongside Jak and Daxter, and Sly Cooper, to compete in a friendly competition hosted by the floating aliens known as the Whibbles to determine which was the greatest hero. The three fought at first, though they later allied to defeat villains Gleeber and Lunk, who had enslaved the Whibbles. Clank appeared to have many disagreements with Bentley, with the two intellectuals frequently arguing while also working together. Later, the team defeated Gleeber and Lunk, and were returned to their worlds, with a communicator to keep in contact with the others.

Clank makes an appearance in PlayStation All-Stars Battle Royale as a playable character with Ratchet. Clank provides Ratchet with the Heli-Pack, and as their level two Super Move wields his Chronoscepter to instantly kill opponents and can throw Time Bombs to tremendously slow opponents. In their story mode, Ratchet and Clank are traveling through the galaxy searching for gold bolts, and track them down to the Nefarious Space Station, where they defeat many foes, run into Qwark and Nefarious, encounter their story rivals Jak and Daxter, and finally defeat the final boss, Polygon Man (the source of the fake gold bolt signal).

Non-Ratchet & Clank cameos

Aside from their playable appearances, Clank makes cameos in many other non-Ratchet & Clank titles:

  • In Jak II, Ratchet and Clank appear on the walls in Haven City, in a poster based on his Going Commando appearance.
  • Clank is an unlockable caddie in Hot Shots Golf Fore! (known as Everybody's Golf in Europe).
  • In Jak 3, Ratchet and Clank appear as targets in a secret gun course, along with Tyhrranoids.
  • In Jak X: Combat Racing, Clank is an antenna on Ratchet's car, who is playable in multiplayer.
  • In Ape Escape 3, an ape wearing a Ratchet outfit that was equipped with Ratchet's wrench and a Clank backpack can be caught.
  • A secret that could be found unlocked a Clank mask that Daxter could wear in Daxter.
  • In Resistance: Fall of Man, a Clank Backpack was available for the human soldiers and was unlocked with 100 points. This was also available in Resistance 2 and was unlocked at level 29.
  • A Clank figure could be purchased from the PlayStation Home shop.
  • In LittleBigPlanet 2 and onwards, a Clank costume is available as downloadable content.
  • Clank, along with Ratchet appears as a DLC Mod characters for the racing game Modnation Racers.
  • In Sly Cooper: Thieves in Time, Clank appears as a collectible treasure in the Medieval England stage, wearing knight armor. The treasure's name is "Medieval Metal Man."
  • In Super Bomberman R, Clank, along with Ratchet, appears as a playable character on the PlayStation 4 version of the game.
  • In Among Us, a Clank pet is obtainable exclusively on the PlayStation version.

Reception

Unlike Ratchet, who was more heavily criticized in the original Ratchet & Clank, Clank was generally better received. IGN praised Clank's voice acting in the first game as "quite engaging, and in some cases, charming".[72] GameSpy, who criticized Ratchet in the original Ratchet & Clank, praised Clank as the "complete opposite" of Ratchet and wished the game was named after him instead.[73]

Clank continued to be a well-received character since. GamesRadar listed Clank on their list of the 25 best new characters of the 2000s decade, claiming he was a "quiet, collected and effortlessly charming robot with cool powers and cooler personality".[74] IGN listed Clank as their fifth in a list of top 10 best sidekicks.[75] Game Informer listed Clank as their third best wingman of the decade, saying his "unique personality" gives players "as much of a reason for players to come back as Ratchet's explosive gunplay."[76]

Notes

Annotations

  1. 1.0 1.1 Clank instantly recognized the R.Y.N.O. and gave facts about it, piecing together that the Shady Salesman had stolen it.[48] He has also been able to instantly recognize an issue with pieces of technology, such as spotting the missing robotic ignition system in Ratchet's homemade ship,[4] the error with Angela Cross' Helix-o-morph[24] and Al's computer.[49] Clank was also able to communicate with factory wroker robots that spoke incoherently.[50]
  2. Clank's optimism in his first adventure helped him see that Ratchet cared about innocent lives deep down even when Ratchet had disavowed heroism.[10] In Up Your Arsenal, it allowed him to encourage Captain Qwark to redeem himself and fight Nefarious.[33] However, Clank's optimism can make him naive to malicious motives. In his first adventure, Clank dragged Ratchet along into a trap set by Qwark when Ratchet had grown suspicious.[6] In Tools of Destruction, Clank offered helpful advice to the Smuggler about jettisoning excess cargo to evade capture, not realizing the Smuggler would betray them and simply jettison him and Ratchet.[51]
  3. Clank flirted with the HelpDesk Girl[14] and Courtney Gears,[31] after both took a liking to him. He also had two girlfriends: a female infobot admirer who followed him to the Bogon Galaxy and helped him numerous times, and Venus, a DreadZone tech droid who flirted with him.[40]
  4. After the original Ratchet & Clank, a robotic ignition system did not appear to be a requirement to start ships, and Ratchet could fly without Clank's help.

Citations

  1. Ratchet & Clank (2002 game) script § "Whoa! This is great!"
  2. A Crack in Time
  3. 3.0 3.1 Ratchet & Clank (2002 game) script § "Mom?"
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Ratchet & Clank (2002 game) script § "The people on those planets are hosed!"
  5. 5.0 5.1 Ratchet & Clank (2002 game) script § "Hey, you're that robot guy, right?"
  6. 6.0 6.1 Ratchet & Clank (2002 game) script § "Step into the Ring of Heroes..."
  7. Ratchet & Clank (2002 game) script § "That's it! I'm outta here!"
  8. Ratchet & Clank (2002 game) script § "Jowai Resort, Pokitaru!"
  9. Ratchet & Clank (2002 game) script § "I have GOT to get me one!"
  10. 10.0 10.1 Ratchet & Clank (2002 game) script § "Catch the infobot (gameplay)"
  11. 11.0 11.1 Ratchet & Clank (2002 game) script § "Look, maybe you were right."
  12. Ratchet & Clank (2002 game) script § "Hmm... was it pi over infinity or...?"
  13. Ratchet & Clank (2002 game) script § "Well done."
  14. 14.0 14.1 Ratchet & Clank (2002 game) script § "I hope she's cute."
  15. Ratchet & Clank (2002 game) script § "Are you... alright?"
  16. Ratchet & Clank (2002 game) script § "Finale"
  17. ​20 Things You (Probably) Didn’t Know About “Ratchet & Clank” from Director Kevin Munroe. IndieWire. Accessed September 1, 2018.
  18. 18.0 18.1 Ratchet & Clank (2016 game)
  19. 19.0 19.1 Ratchet & Clank (2016 movie)
  20. 20.0 20.1 Going Commando script § "Remember, you bought it from Steve..."
  21. Going Commando script § "Behind the Hero, Part I"
  22. Going Commando script § "If you are watching this, you're fired..."
  23. Going Commando script § "Free Ratchet from prison cell"
  24. 24.0 24.1 Going Commando script § "Defeat the mutated Protopet (gameplay)"
  25. Up Your Arsenal, game manual (NTSC-U/C), p. 9
  26. 26.0 26.1 26.2 26.3 Up Your Arsenal script § "Film a Secret Agent Clank Episode (gameplay)"
  27. 27.0 27.1 Up Your Arsenal script § "Intro movie"
  28. Up Your Arsenal script § "Eliminate the Enemy Forces (gameplay)"
  29. Up Your Arsenal script § "Mission Idiotic"
  30. Up Your Arsenal script § "Other"
  31. 31.0 31.1 Up Your Arsenal script § "Meet with Courtney Gears (gameplay)"
  32. Up Your Arsenal script § "Defeat Giant Klunk (gameplay)"
  33. 33.0 33.1 Up Your Arsenal script § "Find Captain Qwark (gameplay)"
  34. Insomniac Games October 14 2005
  35. Deadlocked script § "Not Captain Starshield!"
  36. Deadlocked script § "Meet Vox"
  37. 37.0 37.1 Deadlocked script § "Tutorial (gameplay)"
  38. Off 2005, p. 7
  39. Deadlocked script § "Climb the Tower of Power (gameplay)"
  40. 40.0 40.1 40.2 Deadlocked script § "DreadZone Station 4"
  41. Deadlocked script § "DreadZone Station 6"
  42. Deadlocked script § "Defeat Gleeman Vox (gameplay)"
  43. Deadlocked script § "Death of a Salesman"
  44. Size Matters script § "Technomites"
  45. Size Matters script § "Arrival"
  46. Size Matters script § "Ratchet Wakes"
  47. Size Matters script § "Clank Restored"
  48. Ratchet & Clank (2002 game) script § "Shady Salesman 1"
  49. Up Your Arsenal script § "Repair the Laser Defense Shield (gameplay)"
  50. Going Commando script § "Ad for Slim's Illegal Ship Mods"
  51. Tools of Destruction script § "Hitch a Ride with the Smuggler (gameplay continued)"
  52. Ratchet & Clank (2002 game) script § "No signal whatsoever!"
  53. Up Your Arsenal script § "Qwark Holds His Breath"
  54. Up Your Arsenal script § "Find Nefarious' Office (gameplay)"
  55. Going Commando script § "Explore the docked ships (gameplay)"
  56. Deadlocked script § "DreadZone Station 2"
  57. Tools of Destruction script § "Escape the Cragmite Caves (gameplay)"
  58. 58.0 58.1 58.2 Insomniac Games 2012
  59. Talon 2004 p. 80
  60. 60.0 60.1 Sony Computer Entertainment 2018, p. 20
  61. McLaughlin 2012
  62. Sony Computer Entertainment 2018, p. 27
  63. 63.0 63.1 Allgeier, Fixman 2018 9:25
  64. Sony Computer Entertainment 2018, p. 22
  65. Price, Schafer 2015
  66. Going Mobile script § "Prologue"
  67. Going Mobile script § "Circuit Circuit (first visit)"
  68. Going Mobile script § "Communication Station (second visit)"
  69. Going Mobile script § "First four MCGuFIN pieces"
  70. Going Mobile script § "Security BIOS (second visit)"
  71. Going Mobile script § "Epilogue"
  72. Perry 2002
  73. Turner 2002
  74. GamesRadar 2009
  75. IGN 2006
  76. Biessener 2010

References

Video games
Bibliograhpy
  • Greg Off (November 2005). Ratchet Deadlocked Prima Official Game Guide. Prima Games. ISBN 0761552049.
  • Sony Computer Entertainment (July 24, 2018). The Art of Ratchet & Clank. Dark Horse Comics. ISBN 1506705723.
  • Durwin S. Talon (May 6, 2004). Comics Above Ground: How Sequential Art Affects Mainstream Media. TwoMorrows Publishing. ISBN 1893905314.
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